Are Handwritten Documents Valid In Estate Planning?
April 10, 2023
Estate planning may not be glamorous, but it’s a key part of planning for the future. Effective estate planning helps protect assets and loved ones from unforeseen circumstances. However, 6 out of 10 adults in the US do not have a will in place. Moreover, many adults are confused about what exactly constitutes a legal last will and testament. For instance, are handwritten documents valid?
My goal at Law Offices of Lawrence H. Nemirow PC is to help my clients protect their assets and loved ones by taking proactive, educated actions. My team and I sit down with clients one-on-one to discuss their needs and expectations. If you live in Los Alamitos or anywhere else in California, including Los Angeles County, Orange County, Huntington Beach, or Newport Beach, set up a consultation with an estate planning attorney today.
Handwritten Wills in California
A holographic will is a type of will entirely handwritten and signed by the testator, the person making the will. Unlike a traditional will, which is typically drafted by a lawyer and signed by the testator and witnesses, a holographic will does not require witnesses in most jurisdictions.
Holographic wills are often created in emergencies when the testator is unable to access legal services or when they believe that a handwritten will is more appropriate for their situation. A common question I get asked from clients is, “Are handwritten will valid?” The short answer is yes.
Under California law, a holographic will is valid if it is entirely in the testator’s handwriting and signed by the testator. The material provisions of the will (i.e., the endowments and dispositions of property) need to be readily identifiable. The signature can be anywhere on the document, and it does not need to be witnessed or notarized. Some jurisdictions, though, may require specific formalities, such as a certain type of paper or ink.
It’s important to note that holographic wills can be subject to greater scrutiny in court, as there may be concerns about the document's authenticity or the testator’s capacity to make a valid will. As a result, it is generally recommended that individuals create a formal, witnessed will with the assistance of an experienced estate planning attorney to ensure that their wishes are carried out as they intend.
Elements of a Valid Holographic Will in California
In California, a holographic will must meet the following criteria to be valid:
Handwritten by the Testator
The holographic will must be entirely handwritten by the testator, meaning that it must be written in the testator’s own handwriting and not typed or printed.
Signed by the Testator
The testator must sign a holographic will at the end of the will. The signature does not need to be in any particular location at the end of the document. Still, it must be clear that the signature is intended to be a signature.
Material Provisions Are Identifiable
The material provisions of the will, such as the distribution of property or the appointment of an executor, must be readily identifiable from the document. This condition means that the will must contain specific language indicating the testator’s intentions with respect to these provisions.
A valid holographic will must demonstrate the testator’s testamentary intent, meaning that it must clearly show that the document is intended to be a will, and that the testator intended for its provisions to be carried out after their death.
The Pros and Cons of a Holographic Will in California
Drafting a holographic will can be a viable option in certain situations. Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of a handwritten will:
Simplicity. Holographic wills are often created in emergency situations when the testator is unable to access legal services or when they believe that a handwritten will is more appropriate for their situation. They are simple to create and do not necessarily require the involvement of an attorney or witnesses.
Cost savings. Since a holographic will does not require the assistance of an attorney or witnesses, it can be a more cost-effective option compared to a formal will.
Flexibility. Holographic wills provide flexibility, as the testator can make changes to the will at any time by simply writing a new document.
Legal challenges. Holographic wills can be subject to legal challenges, as there may be concerns about the document's authenticity or the testator’s capacity to make a valid will. This situation can result in disputes among beneficiaries and potentially costly court proceedings.
Uncertainty. The lack of legal guidance and oversight in creating a holographic will can lead to uncertainty about the document’s validity and the testator’s intentions, potentially resulting in unintended consequences.
Limited scope. Holographic wills are generally not as comprehensive as formal wills. They may not address all of the testator’s wishes and concerns.
While a holographic will can be a simple and cost-effective way to create a will, it can also come with legal challenges. I generally recommend my clients create a formal, witnessed will with the assistance of an experienced estate planning attorney to ensure that their wishes are truly carried out.
Trusted Legal Assistance in Los Alamitos, California
At Law Offices of Lawrence H. Nemirow PC, my team and I are ready to go the extra mile for clients. I believe everyone deserves legal assistance when it comes to planning for the future. Contact my team when you’re ready to discuss your estate planning options.